Spermatophyta: Monocotyledonae: Asparagales

Hyacinthaceae

Chase, M.W., Reveal, J.L. & Fay, M.J. (2009) A subfamilial classification for the expanded asparagalean families Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceae and Xanthorrhoeaceae. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161 132-136

Manning, J.C., Forest, F, Devey, D.S, Fay, M.F. & Goldblatt, P. (2009) A Molecular Phylogeny and a Revised Classification of Ornithogaloideae (Hyacinthaceae) Based on an Analysis of Four Plastid DNA Regions. Taxon 58(1) 77-107

Manning, J.C., Goldblatt, P. & Fay, M.F. (2004) A revised generic synopsis of Hyacinthaceae in Sub-Saharan Africa, based on molecular evidence, including new combinations and the new Tribe Pseudoprospereae Edinburgh Journal of Botany 60(3) 533-568

Martinez-Azorin, M., Crespo, M.B., Alonso-Vargas, M.A., Dold, A.P., Crouch. N.R., Pfosser, M., Mucina, L, Pinter, M. & Wetschnig, W. (2019) New combinations in the tribe Urgineeae (Asparagaceae subfam. Scilloideae) with comments on contrasting taxonomic treatments Phytotaxa 397(4) 291-299

Martinez-Azorin, M., Crespo, M.B., Juan, A. & Fay, M.F. (2011) Molecular phylogenetics of subfamily Ornithogaloideae (Hyacinthaceae) based on nuclear and plastid DNA regions, including a new taxonomic arrangement Annals of Botany 107 1-37

Pfosser, M. & Speta, F. (1999) Phylogenetics of Hyacinthaceae Based on Plastid DNA Sequences Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 86(4) 852-875

Pfosser, M., Prenner, G. & Wetschnig, W. (2003) Phylogenetic relationships among genera of Massonieae (Hyacinthaceae) inferred from plastd DNA and seed morphology Journal of Plant Research 116 115-132

Stedje, B. (1996) Hyacinthaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa

Stedje, B. (2001) The Generic Delimitation within Hyacinthaceae. A comment on works by F. Speta Bothalia 34(2) 192-195

Stedje, B. (2001) Generic Delimitation of Hyacinthaceae, with Special Emphasis on Sub-Saharan Genera Systematics and Geography of Plants 71(2) 449-454

Description of the family

Herbs with bulbs. Leaves in a basal rosette from the apex of the bulb (in Bowiea and Schizobasis, leaves 0 or much reduced), with or without spots, sometimes papillose or hairy. Inflorescence a raceme or spike on a leafless peduncle (but in Bowiea and Schizobasis much-branched and complex). Flowers greenish to white or yellowish, purplish to purple or blue, often with a green or dark midrib. Perianth segments 6, free or fused into a tube. Ovary superior, 3-locular, with 1-many ovules per loculus. Fruit a loculicidal capsule. Seeds black, sometimes winged.

Comment: Species concepts, generic delimitations and even the placement of the family have been a continuous source of debate for at least the last 25 years and probably longer. Even as it stands now it will likely continue to divide taxonomic minds for the foreseeable future. Both for the genera concepts as well as for the family we prefer to use a more conservative approach based not only on molecular evidence but as well on distinct morphological traits as is held by Martínez-Azorín et al. (Phytotaxa 397-4: 291-299, 2019) ao.
Genera included by us here under Hyacinthaceae are nowadays often placed as subfamily Scillioideae under Asparagaceae. However, we have followed the more traditional treatment for the time being.

Worldwide: 41 genera and 770 species, ± cosmopolitan, but especially Mediterranean region and South Africa.

Malawi: 10 genera and 17 taxa.

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Links to genera:     View: living plant images - herbarium specimen images - all images for this family

GenusContent
Albuca L.Description
Bowiea Harv. ex Hook. f.Description
Dipcadi Medik.Description
Drimia Jacq. ex Willd.Description
Eucomis L'Hér.Description
Ledebouria RothDescription
Merwilla Speta
Ornithogalum L.Description
Schizocarphus Van der MerweDescription
Urginea Steinh.Description

Other sources of information about Hyacinthaceae:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Hyacinthaceae
Flora of Caprivi: Hyacinthaceae
Flora of Mozambique: Hyacinthaceae
Flora of Zambia: Hyacinthaceae
Flora of Zimbabwe: Hyacinthaceae
Flora of Zimbabwe: cultivated Hyacinthaceae

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Hyacinthaceae
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network) taxonomy for plants report for Hyacinthaceae
Wikipedia: Hyacinthaceae


Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2014-19

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2019). Flora of Malawi: Family page: Hyacinthaceae.
https://www.malawiflora.com/speciesdata/family.php?family_id=101, retrieved 13 December 2019

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