Location: Kawandama Hills and Forest Reserve

General Information

Quarter degree square: 1233B2

Country: Malawi

Habitat: Montane evergreen forest, grassland, secondary vegetation and rocky outcrops

Altitude range: 1800 -1950 m

Annual rainfall:

Location (short):

Location (detailed):


Copied from Dowsett-Lemaire in Bull. Jard. Bot. Nat. Belg. 59(1/2): 44-45 (1989):

The Kawandama area is on a southeast extension of the plateau, and the forest patches, on or near the edge of the scarp, are a very exposed situation. The largest patch is 51 ha in size, and five smaller ones add up to 24 ha. The country between Chamambo and Kawandama is still largely free of pine plantations, and it is obvious, from the numerous clumps of secondary growth and scattered trees, that forest was greatly reduced by fires in the past centuries. At Kawandama, charred stumps of Ocotea usambarensis stand in short grassland 100 or 200 m from the edge of the forest, and the trees were estimated to have died three to four centuries ago (Chapman & White 1970: 33).
Fires have left huge gaps inside the main forest patch - one as big as 180 x 60 m - that are still only partly filled by walls of lianas climbing up isolated tall trees. Ficalhoa is the commonest emergent, followed by Cryptocarya and Cassipourea gummiflua. Both at the southern end of their ranges, Ocotea usambarensis (25-30 m high) does not rise above the canopy, and Entandrophragma excelsum is quite rare and stunted. Main canopy trees are Cussonia spicata, Ekebergia capensis, Macaranga kilimandscharica, Polyscias and Prunus. Aphloia is the dominant medium-sized tree on ridges. Of the many large lianas, two Schefflera (S. abyssinica and myriantha) are conspicuous; as elsewhere on the Viphya and at Ntchisi S. abyssinica is also a small tree but is particularly well developed here, near the forest edge.
The usual mat of Acanthaceae herbs and shrubs is lacking here and is replaced by colonies of Impatiens eryaleia (1-2 m tall), and the small Pilea veronicifolia in deeper shade. Two large Asplenium (A. anisophyllum and friesiorum) are also common.

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Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2014-24

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2024). Flora of Malawi: Location details: Kawandama Hills and Forest Reserve.
https://www.malawiflora.com/speciesdata/location-display.php?location_id=224, retrieved 22 April 2024

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