Lycopodiella caroliniana (L.) Pic.Serm.

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Lycopodiella caroliniana

Photo: Bart Wursten
Lake Kaulime, Nyika National Park

Lycopodiella caroliniana

Photo: Bart Wursten
Lake Kaulime, Nyika National Park

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Synonyms: Lycopodiella affinis (Bory) Pic.Serm.
Lycopodiella caroliniana (L.) Pic.Serm. var. tuberosa (Welw. & A.Braun ex Kuhn) Verdc.
Lycopodium affine Bory
Lycopodium carolinianum L. var. affine (Bory) Schelpe
Lycopodium carolinianum L.
Lycopodium ericetorum Schrad.
Lycopodium tuberosum Welw. & A.Braun ex Kuhn
Common names:
Status: Native
Stem branched, creeping on the ground, rooting along its length, up to 6 mm in diameter. Leaves slightly dimorphic, lateral leaves spreading, membranous, slightly larger than the dorsal leaves, dorsal leaves somewhat appressed to stem. Strobili solitary, 70 × 6 mm, borne at the apex of an erect peduncle; peduncle 7-30 cm long, sparsely set with appressed, reduced leaves. Sporophylls broadly ovate, tapering with a deflexed point.
Notes: Can be distinguished from L. sarcocaulon by having membranous lateral leaves that are of similar size or slightly larger than dorsal leaves and lance-shaped to oblong in outline.
Derivation of specific name: caroliniana: the first specimen was collected in Carolina, United States.
Habitat: Marshy areas, perennial or seasonal seepage zones in grassland and on wet rocks next to perennial mountain streams
Altitude range: 300 - 2350 m
Worldwide distribution: Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, tropical Africa. Also Madagascar, Mascarene Islands and north-eastern North America.
Malawi distribution: N
Growth form(s): Terrestrial.
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Content last updated: Wednesday 10 October 2018

Burrows, J.E. (1990). Southern African Ferns and Fern Allies. Frandsen, Sandton. Pages 19 - 20. (Includes a picture).

Burrows, J.E. & Burrows, S.M. (1993). An annotated check-list of the pteridophytes of Malawi Kirkia 14(1) Page 80.

Burrows, J.E. & Willis, C.K. (eds) (2005). Plants of the Nyika Plateau Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 31 SABONET, Pretoria Page 34. as Lycopodium carolinianum affine

Chapano, C. & Mamuto, M. (2003). Plants of the Chimanimani District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 37.

Crouch, N.R., Klopper, R.R., Burrows, J.E. & Burrows, S.M. (2011). Ferns of Southern Africa, A comprehensive guide Struik Nature Pages 44 - 45. (Includes a picture).

Da Silva, M.C., Izidine, S. & Amude, A.B. (2004). A preliminary checklist of the vascular plants of Mozambique. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 30 Sabonet, Pretoria Page 12.

Jacobsen, W.B.G. (1983). The Ferns and Fern Allies of Southern Africa. Butterworths, Durban and Pretoria. Pages 133 - 134. (Includes a picture).

Kornas, J. (1979). Distribution and ecology of the Pteridophytes in Zambia Polska Akademia Nauk Wydzial II Nauk Biologicznych Pages 26 - 27.

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 7.

Roux, J.P. (2001). Conspectus of Southern African Pteridophyta. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report 13 Pages 22 - 23.

Roux, J.P. (2009). Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighbouring islands Page 17.

Schelpe, E.A.C.L.E. (1970). Pteridophyta Flora Zambesiaca Page 21.

Wursten, B., Timberlake, J. & Darbyshire, I. (2017). The Chimanimani Mountains: an updated checklist. Kirkia 19(1) Page 79.

Wursten, B., Timberlake, J. & Darbyshire, I. (2017). The Chimanimani Mountains: an updated checklist. Kirkia 19(1) Page 79. As Lycopodiella caroliniana affinis

Other sources of information about Lycopodiella caroliniana:

Our websites:

Flora of Mozambique: Lycopodiella caroliniana
Flora of Zambia: Lycopodiella caroliniana
Flora of Zimbabwe: Lycopodiella caroliniana

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Lycopodiella caroliniana
African Plant Database: Lycopodiella caroliniana
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Lycopodiella caroliniana
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Lycopodiella caroliniana
ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Lycopodiella caroliniana
Flora Zambesiaca web site: Lycopodiella caroliniana
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Lycopodiella caroliniana
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network): Lycopodiella caroliniana
iNaturalist: Lycopodiella caroliniana
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Lycopodiella caroliniana
JSTOR Plant Science: Lycopodiella caroliniana
Kew Herbarium catalogue: Lycopodiella caroliniana
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Lycopodiella caroliniana
Plants of the World Online: Lycopodiella caroliniana
Tropicos: Lycopodiella caroliniana
Wikipedia: Lycopodiella caroliniana

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2014-23

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2023). Flora of Malawi: Species information: Lycopodiella caroliniana., retrieved 23 March 2023

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