Trema orientale (L.) Blume

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Trema orientale

Photo: Bart Wursten
Leopard Rock Game Reserve, Vumba

Trema orientale

Photo: Bart Wursten
Leopard Rock Game Reserve, Vumba

Trema orientale

Photo: Bart Wursten
Edge of camp site, Chirinda Forest

Trema orientale

Photo: Bart Wursten
Rusitu Forest.

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Species details: Click on each item to see an explanation of that item (Note: opens a new window)

Synonyms: Trema guineensis (Schumach. & Thonn.) Ficalho
Common names: Elm (English) Pigeonwood (English)
Frequency:
Status: Native
Description:
Tree or shrub to 10-15 m. Bark smooth, grey. Stipules 4-7 mm, lanceolate. Leaves: petiole 7-12 mm; lamina 7-14 × 2-7.5 cm, oblong-lanceolate to ovate; margin serrate all round, even towards the base; base rounded to cordate; apex acuminate. Cymes 5-10 mm (to 30 mm in fruit), usually congested, mostly male flowers but some bisexual at tip. Ovary pubescent. Fruits 2-4 mm, black, glabrescent.
Notes: Leaves of this species are often infested with distinct galls caused by the gall mites Neserella decora and N. tremae in the family Eriophyidae.
The name of this species has long been spelled as orientalis. However since the name Trema is of Greek origin - meaning "an opening" - and is ending in -ma, it's neuter. This means the ending of the specific should be orientale.
Derivation of specific name: orientale: oriental, eastern
Habitat: In forest clearings and at forest edges, both montane and riverine and also sometimes in woodland, in areas of higher rainfall
Altitude range:
Flowering time:Mainly Dec - Feb
Worldwide distribution: Throughout Africa south of the Sahara, Madagascar, Mascarene Islands and tropical Asia.
Malawi distribution: N,C,S
Growth form(s): Tree.
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species: Charaxes cithaeron cithaeron (Food plant)
Philotherma rosa (Food plant)
Pseudobunaea tyrrhena (Food plant)
Charaxes castor flavifasciatus (Larval foodplant)
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Literature:

Burrows, J.E., Burrows, S.M., Lötter, M.C. & Schmidt, E. (2018). Trees and Shrubs Mozambique Publishing Print Matters (Pty), Cape Town. Page 69. (Includes a picture).

Chapano, C. & Mamuto, M. (2003). Plants of the Chimanimani District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 56.

Chapano, C. & Mugarisanwa, N.H. (2003). Plants of the Matobo District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 35.

Coates Palgrave, K. (revised and updated by Meg Coates Palgrave) (2002). Trees of Southern Africa 3rd edition. Struik, South Africa Page 128.

Dowsett-Lemaire, F. (1989). The flora and phytogeography of the evergreen forests of Malawi. I: Afromontane and mid-altitude forests; Bull. Jard. Bot. Nat. Belg. 59(1/2) Page 20.

Drummond, R.B. (1975). A list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers indigenous or naturalised in Rhodesia. Kirkia 10(1) Page 233.

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 81.

Siebert, S. & Mössmer, M. (Editors) (2002). SABONET Southern Mozambique Expedition 2001; Provisional Plant Checklist of the Maputo Elephant Reserve (MER) and Licuati Forest Reserve (LFR) SABONET News 7(1) Page 29.

Smith-Meyer, M.K.P. & Ueckermann, E,A. (1989). African Eriophyoidae: A new Genus Neserella and Cecidodectes Nalepa (Acari: Eriophyidae) from Trema orientalis (L.) Blume Phytophylactica 21 Pages 411 - 413. Protologue of gall mites Neserella tremae and N. decora (Includes a picture).

Steedman, E.C. (1933). Some Trees, Shrubs and Lianes of Southern Rhodesia. Page 4. as Trema guineensis (Includes a picture).

Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A Checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mount Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34 National Botanic Garden of Belgium Page 181.

Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Dowsett-Lemaire, F., Congdon, C., Branch, B., Collins, S., Curran, M., Dowsett, R,J., Fishpool, L., Francisco, J., Harris, Kopp, M. & de Sousa, C. (2012). Mt Mabu, Mozambique: Biodiversity and Conservation Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London Page 76.

Wilmot-Dear, C.M. (1991). Ulmaceae Flora Zambesiaca 9(6) Pages 4 - 6. (Includes a picture).

Other sources of information about Trema orientale:

Our websites:

Flora of Mozambique: Trema orientale
Flora of Zambia: Trema orientale
Flora of Zimbabwe: Trema orientale
Flora of Zimbabwe: cultivated Trema orientale

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Trema orientale
African Plant Database: Trema orientale
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Trema orientale
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Trema orientale
ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Trema orientale
Flora Zambesiaca web site: Trema orientale
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Trema orientale
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network): Trema orientale
iNaturalist: Trema orientale
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Trema orientale
JSTOR Plant Science: Trema orientale
Kew Herbarium catalogue: Trema orientale
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Trema orientale
Plants of the World Online: Trema orientale
Tropicos: Trema orientale
Wikipedia: Trema orientale


Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2014-21

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2021). Flora of Malawi: Species information: Trema orientale.
https://www.malawiflora.com/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=120090, retrieved 23 October 2021

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